BETHLEHEM (AsiaNews) – The Pope supports the right of the Palestinian people to have a “sovereign homeland”, “secure and at peace with its neighbours, within internationally recognised borders”, he “pleads” all people in the region, at war for over 60 years, to “to put aside grievances and divisions”, he hopes that the security problems which have given rise to crushing difficulties in the economic, social and family spheres of Palestinian life will be “allayed” and that the reconstruction of Gaza goes ahead, he invites all to. . .
A quick scan of the historiography of business and economic history reveals that both bodies of scholarship have focused on large Western European countries and the United States. This comes as no surprise. Modern business institutions, entrepreneurs and ideologies were born, raised and cultivated in Western Europe and the United States. The emphasis on development in Germany, France, Great Britain and the United States, has overshadowed the evolution of modern business life in small and less advanced countries. As Sidney Pollard points out, scholars have often viewed peripheral Europe as a passive recipient of new industrial products from the center and a more or less underdeveloped supplier of raw materials, surplus laborand food to advanced regions. Recent studies of smaller European countries illustrate, however, that this broadly accepted view is somewhat, if not completely, misleading. For instance, countries such as Sweden, Norway, Czechoslovakia, Poland and the Netherlands had already developed large scale industries and advanced business institutions in the 19th century which were. . .
University of Helsinki
In German history, nationalism is the key to understanding the
people and their history. The problem is that many see German
nationalism as the events leading up to and following National
Socialism, or Nazism. Others ignore the other major events in
Germany’s history or see them as insignificant in comparison. It is
true that Hitler and the Nazis were a major component in German
history and it is impossible to overlook their role in history, not just
in Germany but in the world. But to see the development of
Germany, and more specifically German nationalism, as only
revolving around National Socialism is to ignore the other factors
that influenced their history as a nation. Throughout German
history, other possibilities existed as alternatives to the imperialist and
chauvinist nationalism displayed in the Wilhelmine Era and later
under National Socialism. In contrast, liberalism, the most influential
alternative, had an important role in the development of German
history. The German liberal and progressive tradition formed the
development of a German nation-state in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Liberal and progressive nationalism pervades German history and its
Was the revolution started by Andrés Bonifacio for filipinas to become independent from Spain which paved the way for the birth of our nation- Filipinas not finished? From a colonial status to national status, was that revolution not finished? Did this not pave the way for our constitution, our academia militar and a new identity- a nation?
This was the basis why our republican army, our newly developed defense system lead by Gen Ricarte, Gen Luna, and other filipino generals defended Filipinas with their blood- our blood. It was a nation defending an invading foreigner. It was a defender versus an aggressor. It was that clear and simple. For those among us who have a clear concept of nationhood, no foreign aggression is ever justified.
When the north americans came, in 1898, they pretended to be part of that revolution by projecting an image of a midwife helping us to be separated from Spain until we were born as an independent nation. They further pretended to have been protecting us, and nurturing us towards maturation.
This north american deception was what led Aguinaldo to a confusion. And lacking in proper education, he did not have any concept of nation. He could not distinguish our former status- a colony before 1898, from that of the new one- a nation after 1898, he could not see the north americans stepping into our territory as already that of foreigners trespassing. He thought that the north americans were just another colonizer taking over the status of the former colonizer which was Spain. And to him, the issue was, whether the north americans whom in his perception is the new colonizer, is a good or bad colonizer merely colonizing separate tribes and petty kingdoms just like the inhabitants of what is now the present Philippine Archipelago in the 16th century.
This accounts for the situation handling conflict between Aguinaldo, of mediocre education and intelligence and Luna of excellent educational background and high intelligence.
Our status after 1898 was already that of a nation. The north americans or any foreigner stepping into our shores without our properly allowing them automatically assume the invader or aggressor status. When we fought them, our status already became that of the defender. We did not remain revolutionaries or insurgents as if the invaders we were fighting were not foreigners but established authority, and our conflict have been merely internal.
We have to breach this strong wall our invaders until today have been building around us which for decades have castrated our soldiers into never developing beyond counterinsurgency capable who have been merely auxilliaries of United States Armed Forces. We have to breach this strong wall separating us from our inherited nation and being disintegrated to behave individually for the benefit of our foreign invaders. After we have started the breach, we can start behaving as a nation with our own problems to settle among ourselves, organic needs we need to address, and a destiny to pursue.
José Miguel García
Information on the israeli assault of a U.S. Navy Intelligence Ship found in an operational area. Had Basilan and Sulu been an israeli territory under its present situation, the north american occupational forces in the area would have provoked a similar response from the independent minded israelis.
This is our past, our link to each other today, as filipinos. Our streets and rivers are clean. Our people are beautiful. This was before the full consequences of the Heredity Injuring Virus transmitted by the north americans penetrated and corrupted at the level of our organic national developmental code.
As shown in several of the photos, we suffered the consequences of our nationalism. We resisted the north american invasion and they tortured us. But we defended our nation. That is our organic national developmental code which we need to recover to liberate ourselves from continued north american invasion up to the present.