e are inside our house. We inherited it from our parents. It's roof is colored green. The day is so hot. The engine exhaust fumes from vehicles passing through the busy street outside is irritating to our lung passages. Moreover, our child is sick and in bed. So he needs to have his room in the proper condition if he is to recover. We turn on the air conditioner. Inside, the house is dark. We need enough light to see adequately in reading, cooking and other activities for living. We turn on the electric light. The power consumption cost is high. Our present income can not catch up with the cost of our economic requirements. We need to earn more if we are to sustain such requirements for the continuation of life of our family. Unfortunately, with our present capability to earn, we can only do so much.

Then an opportunity comes for us to earn extra. However, there is a cost in exchange. The extra income we will get, will result to an extra loss of resources to sustain requirements for the continuation of life of someone else and his family. We have to make a choice. Will it be his and the life of his family, or ours?

The bigger radius situation-- gain or loss of life for us, for the other, of for both, is the consequence of
that choice. The choice we make, is the product of our ethical values, in response to the smaller radius situation-- the need to earn more, which is economic. This is economic situation, is the consequence of our economic response-- utilize artificial devices to our original situation-- need to reduce temperature, air pollution, and increase light which are biological, inside our house-- environmental response, which is a consequence of our inheritance of our behavior and our house-- social.


We have been living inside this house since we were children ourselves. This has been the system of our parents. Why should we change it? Is this not all a matter of economics?

We needed to have an extra income because of the cost of power consumption. It is daytime. So why do we need to use an electric light when it is daytime? What about the sunlight? It could only be because our house does not permit entry of natural light. It is because it has been built according to a design that has walls that does not have openings to let in light from outside. Why do we also need to use airconditioner? Do we not have air from outside? Do we not have trees to shield our house from heat and to bring in more oxygen? Do we not know that no colors which is black and dark colors including green absorb heat which bring in more heat to our house? Do we not know that all colors which is white, and bright colors including yellow and orange reflect heat? These are what nature does. But we have isolated ourselves from it inside a very artificial structure which we have just inherited.


However, if we are only sensitive to the situation outside our house-- the sunlight, the air, the plants and all of nature including the people around us, we will realize that it is less of economics and more of environmental and how we relate to it, that should be the subjects of our choices. Then we can see that our original situation-- need to reduce temperature, air pollution, and increase light which are biological, inside our house, is an environm
ental problem which can be addressed by a scientific response. This is being in communion with nature. It is a matter of designing the house with more sides facing outside which allows more window openings for cross flow of air and entry of light from the outside. It is a matter of raising the pitch of the roof with vent on the outside, installing insullation and having the roof surface colored with bright color like orange to allow hot air to go up and out, block heat from the roof surface and reflect heat from outside. It is a matter of planting more trees and bushes to filter heat and engine exhaust fumes. It is also a matter of developing an environment where vehicular needs are reduced and pedestrian traffic is facilitated. This has a high initial cost but low maintance in the long run. We canot after all, make a choice by ourself.


This is possible if there is a socialized housing project with the aforementioned design. This is possible if there is enough horizontal real estate area available to accomodate area for buildings that will have at least four corners to accomodate more wall surface facing outside to receive natural air and light as well as more spaces for trees. This is possible if there is an organized holistic blueprint for the area concerned. This is possible if social behavior of the area concerned is adaptable to an ecologically sustainable system. It is social behavior at the end that determines the implementation of any economic and scientific solutions to a situation.

Incidentally, this system reduces use of substances which contribute to climate change. The details of climate change issues have not even been presented. Yet it can be observed that no matter how thorough and sound are our systems blue print as we have already seen from what Arch. Palafox has revealed, they have not been implemeted. It is the behavior of those who are supposed to implement that is the factor needed. Who are those who are supposed to implement any system for the proper function of a society? All of us.


But we have not been able to do it for generations, how then can we expect ourselves to be able to do it this time? As shown, responsiveness to nature will be the force within us to move us
to be in harmony with outside of our self. The force that will move us is not intellectual, but emotional. It is the force that moves us to do stupid things as forgoing our own needs for the sake of others. This is love. This is consistent with being responsive to nature. It is because the ultimate source of nature-- the cause of everything, is God. Then we should believe in his words. If we are to believe in his words, we then should believe in the scriptures and every manifestation of his works. How are we to know which among the many scriptures and events we percieve are that of God? By being sensitive to nature, being humble and loving outside of ourselves, we will be able to perceive him. Only then can we realize that what the scripture says that his 1st commandment that we love God with all our mind, with all our strength, and with all our being, is indeed the only reference point for the ethical values mentioned earlier. His 2nd commandment that we love others as ourself is related to his 1st.

As mentioned earlier, whether we are a powerful government official, a billionaire, a lowly employee, a peas
ant or an under employed or a jobless individual, we cannot do it on our own. We are just too weak to feel naked.

We inherited these characteristics from our first parents as mentioned in the scripture. It says that when our first parents who were naked in paradise got infected by sin, they begun to make clothes. That was the start of our materialism. When God asked Adam, one of our first parents where he had
been because God has been looking for him. To which Adam answered that he hid from God because he was naked. God responded saying, "Naked? Who told you that you are naked? Have you eaten the fruit of the tree I forbade you to eat?" God knew that Adam had disobeyed his commandment because he saw the consequences of Adam not having followed something he instructed. True enough, the consequence was the degeneration into being unable to live without anything due to the loss of communion with God-- the ultimate source of nature.
3, 4
Communion with the ultimate source of nature and his two greatest commandments are the basis for our living and our ethical values. As these become part of our own genetic code, we begin to act and lose if need be, to make our environment less painful and more pleasant to live in for others.

Photo Courtesis:

1. Free Nature Pictures
2. Free Nature Pictures
3. Jonaldm
4. Photo8.com

José Miguel García


GeoCities: José Torres Bugallón*


Jose Torres Bugallon, great military strategist in the Filipino-American War, was born on August 28, 1873 in Salasa (now Bugallon), Pangasinan to Jose Asas Bugallon. His father came from Baliwag, Bulakan; his mother was of the well-known Gonzales family of Pangasinan.
After elementary schooling in Salasa, he went to San Isidro.
Nueva Ecija where he completed in 1882 the first and second years of the secondary course under Don Rufino Villaruz. In 1886, he enrolled at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, completed the secondary course and earned the Bachelor of Arts degree in 1889, with high scholastic ratings.
After his graduation he entered the Seminary of San Carlos with the intention of becoming a priest although his real love was the military. Having passed the validation examination given by the Spanish government in 1892, he went abroad as a pensionado of the government to the world-famed Military Academy at Toledo, Spain where he spent three years of concentrated study in the science of military organization and warfare.
In 1896, he graduated as 2nd Lieutenant. Upon his return to the Philippines that same year, he joined and served with the 70th Infantry Regiment of the Spanish Army. He fought several battles and after the battle of Talisay on May 30, 1897, he was promoted to Captain. He was also awarded the coveted Cross of Maria Cristina and the Red Cross for Military Honor (Cruz Roja del Merito Militar).  After the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898, and the cessation of hostilities, he obtained his clearance papers.
At that time, General Antonio Luna urgently needed instructors for the training of officers in the European art of warfare at Malolos, Bulacan. Jose joined General Luna's staff as aide-de-camp and recruitment officer for Spanish war veterans. A well-trained military officer, he was very instrumental in the reorganization and discipline of the Filipino Army. This made him an invaluable officer to General Luna.
On February 5, 1899, Bugallon was in command of the heavily defended frontline at La Loma. The American troops under General Arthur MacArthur attacked this defense sector. In the thick of battle, the Filipino forces were outflanked, exposing Torres Bugallon to the superior firepower of the enemy. He was hit by a bullet in the thighs.
Upon learning from Lt. Colonel Queri, that Bugallon was wounded, General Luna ordered: "Bugallon wounded. Order forward. He must be saved at all costs. Bugallon is worth 500 Filipino soldiers. He is one of my hopes for future victory."
General Luna found him severely wounded and prostrate in a ditch at the side of the road. All that he could utter was "My ... don't expose yourself so much. Don't advance any farther."
For galiantry in action he was honored with the regalia befitting his heroism, promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, and pinned with a medal worth his military valor.  Lt. Colonel Bugallon was withdrawn from the frontlines by Commander Hernando, and General Luna himself, who took him to the Kalookan medical station where he was given first aid by Dr. Jose Luna and Santiago Barcelona. By train, he was rushed by General
Luna to Malolos for hospitalization. Somewhere after Lolomboy and nearing the approach to Bocaue, Lt. Colonel Bugallon asked: "Have the reinforcement arrived?" Too weak to keep his strength any longer due to profuse bleeding, he died on the breast of General Antonio Luna, a few hours after he was withdrawn from the battlefield.
Commander Torres Bugallon's death was a great loss to General Antonio Luna who wept unashamedly before the lifeless body of his comrade-at-arms.
Arrangements were made to bury his remains in Bigaa but it was decided later to inter the corpse at the Malolos cemetery. There  a tomb with a modest stone slab marked his final resting place.
Though felled in battle, Bugallon with his gallantry under the very superior enemy firepower, surpassed whatever shortcomings he had in Iris military career. He owed a great debt of gratitude to Spain for his training and education. But his decision to renounce his military allegiance and to join the Filipino Army not only for martial laurels but for the bright future of the land of his birth for which he sacrificed his life, made him a hero, a true Filipino.
To perpetuate his memory, a law sponsored in 1921 by Congressman Mauro Navarro of Pangasinan changed the name of Salasa, the hero's birthplace, to Bugallon.
His remains now lie buried in the Sampalok Church in Manila.
* http://www.geocities.com/sinupan/BugallonT.htm